According to a recent report on the official website of the British “Nature” magazine, India’s second lunar exploration mission – “Chandrayaan-2” orbiter, lander and lunar rover will be launched in March next year. The main purpose is to Tracking the “every move” of the moon dust, through this “mysterious veil” shrouded on the moon, to better understand the evolution of its surface environment, and to provide a reference for humans to establish a base on the moon.
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The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), which is leading the lunar mission, is now preparing for the launch, testing related equipment and technologies. In a shed near ISRO’s headquarters in Bengaluru, a six-wheeled rover lurches on dark-gray rubble, the surface rocks that mimic the moon. ISRO will also combine all the parts of Chandrayaan-2 to perform the final and most complex test of the entire system. These tests are all critical to the launch next March.
If everything goes according to plan, the launch of Chandrayaan 2 will be nearly 10 years after the launch of Chandrayaan 1.
India’s first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, was successfully launched on October 22, 2008. It was originally planned to work for two years, but it lost contact in 2009 after circling the moon 3,400 times. Although Chandrayaan-1 was unsuccessful, a device on it reached the lunar surface and collected enough data for scientists to confirm that there is water on the moon.
Always remember, there will be reverberations. Eight years after losing radio contact, in mid-March, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory spotted the spacecraft 200 kilometers above the moon, orbiting the moon.
”Logically, Chandrayaan-2 is an extension and extension of the Chandrayaan-1 mission,” said Mirswami Anadura, ISRO’s Chandrayaan-2 project leader. Anadullah is also Head of ISRO Satellite Center.
The Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft consists of an orbiter orbiting the moon, a lander (the landing site has not yet been identified, but may be located near the moon’s south pole), and a rover. It will try out more radical technological strategies, testing India’s space technology, such as controlling the landing of an aircraft for the first time. ISRO has developed an advanced system for this purpose, which can guide the lander to touch down and dispatch the rover.
The floating dust covers the eyes of the “Moon Ship” to be deciphered
China, Japan and other countries have also developed their own lunar exploration programs. Like these countries, the original intention of India’s lunar exploration mission also includes further understanding of the lunar environment. At present, many governments and private institutions plan to establish human bases on the moon, but before that, there are still many secrets on the moon that need to be solved, such as floating moon dust.
The moon does not have an atmosphere like Earth’s, so the lunar surface is tormented by the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation, creating a shell of charged particles—plasma—in which dust particles can float.
Penny King, a planetary scientist at the Australian National University, said this “annoying” moon dust would cause many problems if humans colonized the moon. They crawl into everything from astronaut clothing to machines, equipment, and more, and cause no small amount of damage, so “understanding how moondust floats around is critical.”
ISRO said that the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter and lander will carry equipment to measure the density of the lunar surface plasma and its regularity over time, and collect data to help scientists gain a more comprehensive understanding of the moon’s existing environment and how it is changing. evolution process. At that time, the Chandrayaan-2 lander will complete the first on-site thermal measurement mission near the lunar pole.
The mission “is expected to further consolidate the findings of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and provide more in situ analytical data on the lunar surface and ionosphere,” Anandura said.
The budget is less than 100 million, and the launch cost is low
Indian space launches have always been known for their low cost, and this time is no exception. ISRO plans to do this for a fraction of the cost — a budget of about $93 million, including rocket and launch costs. Chandrayaan-2 will be launched into space by the agency’s three-stage rocket, the second-generation Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle, which will take off from a launch site in Sriharikota in the Bay of Bengal.
”One of the bright spots of Indian space programs is that they spend less money,” said Charles Laneweaver, an astrobiologist at the Australian National University.
On February 15 this year, the Indian space sector successfully launched 104 satellites into space with a single rocket. In its report on the same day, the American Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) analyzed the cost of launching rockets in India. Although SpaceX is cheap by industry standards, the Indian Space Agency is simply cheap. The cost of the rocket that India used that day was one-third of the “Falcon 9” rocket. In addition, ISRO charges businesses around 60 percent of what other space agencies charge. The root cause is that the low labor price is one of the main reasons for the low cost of launching satellites in India. The monthly salary of space engineers in India is 1,000 US dollars, which is a huge gap compared with their counterparts in the United States or Europe.
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