Is there other life in the solar system? Scientists think life on Mars is hiding in underground caves
In recent years, scientists have continuously improved the accuracy of deep space exploration through various means, but have not found any evidence of extraterrestrial life so far. Perhaps we should turn our attention to the solar system where humans have been born. There may be some confusion here. People were surprised to find out.
Mars is known as the twin brother of the earth. It has the same distinct seasons and similar rotation period as the earth. Although Mars is cold and dry now, and its surface is desolate , when Mars still had a magnetic field hundreds of millions of years ago, the environment on the surface of Mars Possibly more habitable than Earth.
Although it is said that the hero does not mention the bravery of the past, it is very likely that life was born under the pleasant natural conditions of Mars. If life ever existed, it may have survived hidden somewhere on Mars.
The scientific report of the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” pointed out that the photos taken by the Mars orbiter show that there are some special areas on the surface of Mars. These special areas have still habitable conditions, which can allow past Martian life to continue to survive here .
The mysterious special regions are caves. These caves are formed on the surface of Mars. If there is life on Mars, they must be here.
Compared with Earth, Mars today looks like a ruthless hell.
In the hot summer, the surface temperature of Mars can reach a maximum of 36°C. However, since Mars has no atmosphere to store heat, the temperature will drop below -100°C at night when there is no sunlight. Under the strong temperature difference between day and night, Mars on extremely fast wind speeds.
In addition, there is no water on the surface of Mars and it is very dry, so sandstorms with a speed of more than 160 kilometers per hour often occur. Sandstorms also occur on the earth, but the sandstorms on the earth are regional and the time is relatively short. Mars is different. A sandstorm on Mars can sweep the whole world. Lasts about a week.
So it is not surprising that the Curiosity rover has not found traces of life on the surface of Mars. In fact, the most suitable place to find life on Mars is not the surface, but underground caves.
As early as 1992, astrophysicist Penny Boston put forward a point of view. She believed that the underground may be the best place to find life on Mars. In the following 30 years, a series of Mars orbiting satellites revealed that there are at least There are 300 clearly identifiable underground caves.
These caves are mainly lava caves and craters caused by meteorite impacts. Scientists speculate that the environment in the caves may be completely different from the environment on the surface.
Although the cave is underground, it is still in the natural system of the planet. Generally speaking, its internal environment should be almost the same as the outside world. Earth’s caves are completely dark, but the temperature inside is still close to the average surface temperature, with little or no air movement.
So it is reasonable to assume that caves on other planets are also consistent with the outside world.
However, caves are not only affected by the surface conditions of the planet, but also by the internal structure of the cave , which may not always be consistent with the surface features.
For example, the Carlsbad Cave in the United States on the earth has different natural characteristics from the surface. The temperature of the Carlsbad Cave is kept at about 56°C throughout the year, and the entrance of the cave is completely blocked by boulders and gravel, making this The cave is completely cut off from the outside surface world, and there is no sunlight at all. At this time, although the cave was still on the earth, the environment on the surface was completely different.
What’s even more exciting is that the walls of Carlsbad Caverns are populated by microbes that have had to adapt to their surroundings in the enclosed caverns to the point where they become able to feed on rocks, which they can break down Metal compounds in the metal, and gain energy in the process of decomposition.
The cave environment is reasonably similar, so it can be speculated that some caves on Mars have different environments from the surface.
The caves of Mars can firstly avoid deadly cosmic radiation and violent sandstorms. Secondly, compared with the surface, caves have a more stable temperature system. Some caves may even contain water ice. This has to make us doubt that microorganisms on Mars It may be living in a cave, like the microorganisms in Carlsbad Cave on Earth, decomposing inorganic matter for a living.
At present, 3,545 potential caves have been discovered in the solar system, and they are distributed on 111 planets and satellites in the solar system. In ancient times, our ancestors lived in caves to avoid the attack of wind, rain and wild animals. Hidden in some cave that we haven’t explored yet.
In addition to searching for life, those extraterrestrial caves may also become human shelters in the future. If we still cannot transform the surface of Mars when we have the needs and capabilities of immigration, then cities can be built in caves under the Martian ground.
Although most of the exploration of extraterrestrial caves is still forward-looking, related technologies have been gradually developed. For example, a large number of robot platforms and instruments are being tested. The caves are full of unknowns. It is undoubtedly very dangerous for astronauts to go down rashly. Robots are obviously a good choice.
If there is enough financial support, in the next 5 to 10 years, humans are expected to carry out exploration missions in caves on the moon or Mars.